Examples from the domain of protest

Takbir during violent altercation

Chanting of the Takbir (“Allahu Akhbar”) during a confrontation outside the Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Note how the chanting acts to unify the protesters, allowing them to form a collective subject to confront the other collective present, the Israeli riot police.

[Source] (slightly longer, with a bit of context)

Dialogical chanting between groups

Islamic and secular protesters exchange chants at an athiest convention in Australia, 2012.


Call and response in Cairo

Effective 4-beat chant illustrating mirroring, where the response is identical to the call. Cairo, 2011.


The clarion call of the Arab Spring

The chant here is “Ash-shab yurid isqat an-nizam“, Arabic for “The people want to bring down the regime. This became the rallying cry of protest after the Tunisian revolution of 2011, in the spread of unrest across the Arab world. The rhythm of this chant is a popular template that can be found in many circumstances. It extends back at least to the 1970 election campaign (and 1973 overthrow) of Salvador Allende in Chile, after which it became the rallying cry of protest world wide.